Bibliography of Psychological Research on Hate Crimes & Pathological Bias

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Akiyama, Y. & Nolan, J.J. (1999, October). The Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990: Developing a process for measuring and predicting the occurrence of hate crime. Paper presented at the meeting of Hate Crimes: Research, Policy and Action, Los Angeles, CA.

Bell, C.C. (2001). Racism: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.
Paper presented at the 156th annual American Psychiatric Association convention, San Francisco, Ca.

Berk, R. A., Boyd, E. A., & Hamner, K. M. (1992). Thinking more clearly about hate-motivated crimes. In G. M. Herek & K.T. Berrill (Eds.), Hate Crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp.123-143). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Berkowitz, L. (1984). Some effect of thoughts on anti- and pro-social influences of media events: A cognitive neoassociation analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 410-427.

Boyd, E. A, Berk, R.A, & Hamner, K.M. (1996). Motivated by hatred or prejudice: Categorization of hate-motivated crimes in two police divisions. Law & Society Review, 30, 819-850.

California State Department of Justice. (1998). Hate Crime in California. Sacramento, CA: Author.

Cohen-Raz, L., Bozna, M., & Glicksohn, J. (1997). Figure and ground in the perception of crime severity. International Journal of Group Tensions, 27, 151-158.

Drescher, J. (1995) Anti-homosexual bias in training. In: Disordering Sexualities, eds. T. Domenici & R.C. Lesser. New York: Routledge, pp. 227-241.

Dressler, J. (1995). When “heterosexual” men kill “homosexual” men: Reflections on provocation law, sexual advances, and the “reasonable man” standard. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 726, 4, 1-31.

Dunbar, E. (2002). Signs and Cultural Messages of Bias Motivated Crimes: Analysis of the Hate Component of Intergroup Violence. In Howard Giles (Ed.), Law enforcement, communication, and the community (pp. 201- 228). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Dunbar, E. (2003). Toward a profile of violent hate criminals: Aggressive, situational, and ideological signifiers of bias-motivated offenders. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 2.

Ezekiel, Raphael. (1996). The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen. Penguin Group (USA).

Federal Bureau of Investigation (1999b). Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines, Revised. Washington, D.C.: Author.

Ferber, Abby L. (edited by) (2003). Home Grown Hate: Gender and Organized Racism. Taylor & Francis, Inc.

Franklin, K. (1997). Unassuming Motivations: Contextualizing the Narratives of Antigay Assailants. In: G. Herek (Ed.) Stigma and sexual orientation. Sage Publications.

Franklin, K. (1997). Hate Crime or Rite of Passage? Assailant Motivations in Antigay Violence. Doctoral Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology.

Franklin, K. (2000). Homophobia. Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior. Taylor & Francis, Publisher.

Franklin, K. (2000). Antigay behaviors among young adults: Prevalence, patterns, and motivators in a non-criminal population. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 339-362.

Franklin, K. (2001). Hate Crimes. Encyclopedia of Gender. Academic Press.

Franklin, K. (2002). Good intentions: The enforcement of hate crime penalty-enhancement statutes. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 154-172.

Franklin, K. (2003). Violence Against Homosexuals. (with G. Herek), In: Plous, S. (editor), Understanding Prejudice and Discrimination, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Franklin, K. (2004). Enacting Masculinity: Antigay Violence and Group Rape as Participatory Theater. Sexuality Research & Social Policy. Vol. 1 (2), pp. 25-40.

Gellman, S. (1991). Sticks and Stones Can Put You in Jail, but Can Words Increase Your Sentence? Constitutional and Policy Dilemmas of Ethnic Intimidation Laws. UCLA Law Review 39, 333-396.

Gerstenfeld, P.B. (1992). Smile when you call me that! The problems with punishing hate motivated behavior. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 259-285.

Green, Donald P.; Glaser, Jack; Rich, Andrew. From lynching to gay bashing: The elusive connection between economic conditions and hate crime. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75(1), July 1998, 82-92.

Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, Roy J.; Cogan, Jeanine C. Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64(6), Dec. 1999, 945-951.

Hate Crimes Violence. 106th Congress, 1st session (August 4, 1999). (Testimony of Frederick M. Lawrence).

International Association of Chiefs of Police (1998, June). Responding to hate crimes: A police officer’s guide to investigation and prevention. In Hate Crime in America Summit. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from

Johnson, S.D. & Byers, D.D. (2003). Attitudes towards hate crime laws. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 227-235.

Levin, J. & Rabrenovic. (2004). Why We Hate. Prometheus Books.

McCaffery, R., Lee, A., Jauhar, P., & Scott, J. (2002). A survey of opinions on the management of individuals who express suicidal ideation while intoxicated with alcohol. Psychiatric Bulletin 26, 332-334.

McDevitt, J., Levin, J., Bennett, S. (2001). Hate crime offenders: An expanded typology. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 303-317.

McDevitt, J., Levin, J. (2002). Hate Crimes Revisited: America's War on Those Who are Different. Westview Press.

McDevitt, J., Balboni, J.M., Bennett, S., Weiss, J.C., Orchowsky, S., & Walbolt, L.(2000). Improving the Quality and Accuracy of Bias Crime Statistics Nationally: An Assessment of the First Ten Years of Bias Crime Data Collection. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, D.C.

Perry, Barbara. (2003). Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader. Taylor & Francis, Inc.

Reeves S.B. & Nagoshi, C.T. (1993). Effects of alcohol administration on the disinhibition of race prejudice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 17, 1066-1071.

Sullaway, M.E., (2004). Psychological Perspectives on Hate Crime Laws. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 10, 250-292.

Sternberg, Robert J. (2004). The Psychology of Hate. American Psychological Association.

Taslitz, A.E. (1999). Condemning the racist personality: Why the critics of hate crimes legislation are wrong. Boston College Law Review, 40, 739-785.

Turner, N. (1998). Responding to Hate Crimes: A Police Officer's Guide to Investigation and Prevention. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from

Waldrep, C. (2001). Racial violence on trial. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Press.